Posts tagged ‘Violet-crowned Hummingbird’

EIGHT species of spectacular Hummingbirds —Southeast Arizona June 2019

Rivoli’s Hummingbird

Minnesota has incredible birds. In fact, many birds on American birder’s “Most Wanted” list occur here: Great Gray Owl, Northern Hawk Owl, Boreal Owl, Connecticut Warbler, etc. And I love the fact that in a few hours drive or less from home I can bird THREE MAJOR BIOMES—Tallgrass Prairie, Eastern Deciduous Forest, and Boreal Forest.

BUT at home in Minnesota we only have ONE HUMMINGBIRD species! The lovely but lonely Ruby-throated Hummingbird. The fact that southeast Arizona hosts about a dozen species (some are migrants) makes it America’s hummer hotspot and a wonderful reason to head to the heat.

I saw seven of the eight species that could be expected in SE Arizona in July. I only missed Costa’s Hummingbird in the wild. (But I did see Costa’s and Rufous in the aviary in the Sonoran Desert Museum)

SEVEN species seen at feeders or while out hiking…

  • Lucifer Hummingbird (Dave Jasper’s yard in Portal; Also Foothills Road near Portal)
  • Violet-crowned Hummingbird (Beatty’s Miller Canyon Orchard & Apiary near Sierra Vista; Also Paton’s Hummingbird Sanctuary in Patagonia)
  • Broad-billed Hummingbird (most widespread: Beatty’s Miller Canyon Orchard & Apiary near Sierra Vista; Paton’s Hummingbird Sanctuary in Patagonia; Patagonia-Sonoita Creek Sanctuary; etc)
  • Broad-tailed Hummingbird (a high-elevation specialist: Palisade Ranger Staton on Mt. Lemmon near Tucson; Rustler Park at over 8,000 feet near Patagonia in the Chiricauhuas)
  • Blue-throated Hummingbird (only at Cave Creek Ranch near Patagonia)
  • Black-chinned Hummingbird (Beatty’s Miller Canyon Orchard & Apiary near Sierra Vista; Patagonia-Sonoita Creek Sanctuary)
  • Rivoli’s Hummingbird (formerly Magnificent Hummingbird) (Palisade Ranger Staton on Mt. Lemmon near Tucson; Beatty’s Miller Canyon Orchard & Apiary near Sierra Vista)

Two captive species

  • Costa’s Hummingbird (only in captivity at the Sonoran Desert Museum aviary near Tucson)
  • Rufous Hummingbird (only in captivity at the Sonoran Desert Museum aviary near Tucson)

You can see the restricted range for these hummingbirds from these MAPS from http://www.allaboutbirds.org. Most don’t get much farther north than southeast Arizona.

Range map of Violet-crowned Hummingbird (pink is breeding only)

LUCIFER HUMMINGBIRD

Male Lucifer Hummingbird! I’ve never had such a close look at this U.S. rarity. This male and the female below were coming to Dave Jasper’s yard just outside of Portal.
[Dave Jasper’s yard in Portal, AZ]
And here’s the female Lucifer. Note her LOOONG neck, curved bill.
[Dave Jasper’s yard in Portal, AZ]
I even found my own Lucifer “in the wild.” This female was feeding along Foothills Road just outside of Portal.

Some fun facts about Lucifer Hummingbirds from http://www.allaboutbirds.org…

  • Lucifer Hummingbird belongs to a group of hummingbird species called “sheartails,” named for their deeply forked, narrow tail.
  • Mainly a bird of Mexico, the Lucifer is quite rare in the U.S so a real treat for us birders!
  • Unlike other hummingbirds, the male Lucifer Hummingbird performs its displays at the nest of a female.
  • Occasionally also seen in the Big Bend region of Texas.

BLUE-THROATED HUMMINGBIRD

Blue-throated Hummingbird is the largest hummers in southeast Arizona. It was also the least common (next to the rare Lucifer). I onlysaw them in one spot…Cave Creek Ranch near Portal.

Some fun facts about Blue-throated Hummingbirds from http://www.allaboutbirds.org…

  • This Lampornis species is really a member of the Mountain-Gem genus, so they may be renamed to “Blue-throated Mountain-Gem” in the future.
  • Blue-throated are the largest hummingbird in North America, weighing 3x more than a Ruby-throated Hummer
  • Males do not have an aerial display like most hummingbirds. Instead they have several vocalizations that they use in courtship.
  • They will mob birds much larger than themselves…even Goshawks! Several may work together to drive them away.
  • Oldest recorded Blue-throated lived at least 7 years and 11 months.

VIOLET-CROWNED HUMMINGBIRD

Violet-crowned Hummingbird is easy to identify by its large size, thin neck, white throat and belly, and violet-blue crown. You can see in this photo how much larger it is than the hovering Broad-billed. [Beatty’s Miller Canyon Apiary & Orchard **RARE AT THIS LOCATION]
THE place to go to see Violet-crowned Hummingbirds is Paton’s Hummingbird Sanctuary in Patagonia, Arizona. This was the Paton’s private residence when I first stopped here in 1994. Wally and ?? faithfully filled their multiple feeders daily and allowed birders to come into their yard and watch. They even put up a canopy and folding chairs so we could watch in comfort. It was under this canopy in 1994 that I got my lifer Violet-crowned Hummer. After the Paton’s passed away, donations from and other birders and birding organization allowed Tucson Audubon to purchase the house and lot. They have built a new permanent canopy for hummer watching, put in an amazing array of flower gardens and water features, and even a trail system.
Violet-crowned Hummingbird [Beatty’s Miller Canyon Apiary & Orchard **RARE AT THIS LOCATION]

Some fun facts about Violet-crowned Hummingbirds from http://www.audubon.org…

  • This relative newcomer to the U.S. was only discovered nesting in 1959.
  • It is only found in lower canyons with large Arizona Sycamores and/or Cottonwoods, usually along streams with brushy understory.

RIVOLI’S HUMMINGBIRD (formerly MAGNIFICENT HUMMINGBIRD)

Rivoli’s Hummingbird (the hummer formerly known as Magnificent) is a large and brightly-colored hummer. I was split into two species in 2017 and unfortunately did not retain its former Magnificent Hummingbird name (insert sad face here!).
The magnificent Rivoli’s Hummingbird.
[Palisade Ranger Station on Mt. Lemmon near Tucson]
I knew this hummingbird as the Magnificent Hummingbird when I first added it to my life list in 1994. Its name was changed in 2017 to Rivoli’s Hummingbird in honor of the Duke of Rivoli, an amateur ornithologist (Anna’s Hummingbird is named after the Duke’s wife…the Duchess of Rivoli).
Magnificent was split into two species…Rivoli’s in the U.S. and Mexico…and Talamanca Hummingbird in Costa Rica
The magnificent Rivoli’s Hummingbird.
[Palisade Ranger Station on Mt. Lemmon near Tucson]

Some fun facts about Rivoli’s Hummingbirds from http://www.allaboutbirds.org…

  • Second largest Hummingbird in the U.S.
  • One of the highest heart-rates of any vertebrate…420 to 1200 beats per minute!
  • An 11-year old bird (!) was banded in Arizona
  • A hummingbird flower mite uses the Rivoli’s Hummingbird for transport: hiding in the birds’ nasal passages until they can jump off at a subsequent flower patch.
  • Known as Magnificent Hummingbird from the 1980s until 2017.
  • Named for the Duke of Rivoli who was an amateur ornithologist.

BROAD-BILLED HUMMINGBIRD

Though the Broad-billed Hummingbird is one of the most wide-spread hummers in SE Arizona, I also think it is one of themes stunning. Its body is covered in iridescent feathers and it has a bright red bill. From this photo angle you can really see why it is named “Broad-billed.”
[Dave Jasper’s yard in Portal, AZ]
Broad-billed Hummingbird male
Broad-billed Hummingbird male
Broad-billed Hummingbird male
Broad-billed Hummingbird male
Broad-billed Hummingbird male

Some fun facts about Broad-billed Hummingbirds from http://www.allaboutbirds.org…

  • Broad-billed Hummingbirds that nest in Arizona are migratory; populations in Mexico are resident year-round in their breeding range.
  • The male Broad-billed Hummingbird performs a courtship display, starting by hovering about a foot from the female and then flying in repeated arcs, like a pendulum.Broad-billed Hummingbirds that nest in Arizona are migratory; populations in Mexico are resident year-round in their breeding range.

BLACK-CHINNED HUMMINGBIRD

Black-chinned Hummingbird male shows a relatively narrow band of iridescent purple above its throat.
In poor lighting or shade, the Black-chinned Hummingbird really appears to have a black chin.
Black-chinned Hummingbird male [Patagonia-Sonoita Creek Sanctuary near Patagonia, Arizona]
Black-chinned Hummingbird male [Patagonia-Sonoita Creek Sanctuary near Patagonia, Arizona]

Some fun facts about Black-chinned Hummingbirds from http://www.allaboutbirds.org…

  • The Black-chinned Hummingbird’s tongue has two grooves; nectar moves through these via capillary action, and then the bird retracts the tongue and squeezes the nectar into the mouth. It extends the tongue through the nearly closed bill at a rate of about 13–17 licks per second
  • This is one of the most adaptable of all hummingbirds, often found in urban areas and recently disturbed habitat as well as pristine natural areas.
  • Along good stretches of some southern Arizona and southern New Mexico rivers, nests may be found every 100 meters or so

BROAD-TAILED HUMMINGBIRD

Broad-tailed Hummingbird
Young male Broad-tailed Hummingbird
Female Broad-tailed Hummingbird spotlit by setting sun.
[Palisade Ranger Station on Mt. Lemmon]
Female Broad-tailed checking out an arriving male. [Palisade Ranger Station on Mt. Lemmon]
Broad-tailed Hummingbird females at feeders at Palisade Ranger Station on Mt. Lemmon near Tucson.
Broad-tailed Hummingbird showing off its “zing-makers.” Air passing through the spread wing feathers make a high-pitched zzziiinngg. They are a hummer of higher elevations. This one was photographed at 8,000 feet at the Palisade Ranger Station on Mt. Lemmon.

Some fun facts about Broad-tailed Hummingbirds from http://www.allaboutbirds.org…

  • The longest-lived Broad-tailed Hummingbird was a female, and over 12 years, 2 months old, when she was recaptured and rereleased during a banding operation in Colorado in 1987. She had been banded in the same state in 1976.
  • Male Broad-tailed Hummingbirds produce a loud metallic “zzzinnggg” trill with their wingtips as they fly, but over time the feathers that produce this sound wear down from use. By midwinter the trill is often inaudible.
  • They breed at elevations up to 10,500 feet (!!), where nighttime temperatures regularly plunge below freezing. To make it through a cold night, they slow their heart rate and drop their body temperature, entering a state of torpor.
  • Sometimes they use sap as a nectar substitute, visiting sapwells excavated by Red-naped Sapsuckers.

RUFOUS HUMMINGBIRD

Rufous Hummingbird male [Sonoran Desert Museum aviary]
Rufous Hummingbird male [Sonoran Desert Museum aviary]
I’ll end with an artsy “high-key” image of a foraging hummer at Patagonia-Sonoita Creek Sanctuary near Patagonia
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Patagonia-Sonoita Creek —Southeast Arizona June 2019 Part 3

Patagonia is a very small town that looms large in the legacy of American birding. It is a must-bird site for all visiting birdwatchers. I hit two of the most famous spots; Paton Center for Hummingbirds (formerly the home of Wally and Marion Paton and their plethora of hummingbird feeders) and the Patagonia-Sonoita Creek Sanctuary.

The handsome and well named Gray Hawk is a specialty of the Patagonia area. They nest along the Sonoita Creek. I almost got too good of a look at this guy as he left off the edge of the dirt road as I rounded a corner. Here he is being harassed by a Kingbird. Unfortunately I didn’t quite get the focus on this shot.
Cassin’s Kingbird at The Nature Conservancy’s Patagonia-Sonoita Creek Sanctuary
My lucky day! …but this Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) had to endure being manhandled by me for a few minutes. He/she was huge and hefty! (Let’s call it a “she.”) The carapace was almost two iPhone 7+ long! And it probably weighed about 10 pounds (total guess…but she was heavy!).
I love tortoises. The Sonoran Desert Tortoise can reach 15 inches in carapace length. This gal measured at 10.5 to 11 inches long so I imagine she is quite old. They eat all kinds of vegetation including cacti. I’ve also caught and “played” with the much smaller Texas Tortoise in, you guessed it, Texas. I helped this gal across the dirt road and off into the brush.
I was quietly walking a deserted and narrow dirt road west of Patagonia when I heard rustling in the brush. I stayed very still and watched this Javelina forage for about 10 minutes. As far as I know it never saw me.
Wally and Marion Paton’s home in Patagonia, Arizona has been a Mecca for birders and hummingbird enthusiasts for decades. I was here in 1994 and our group sat quietly under the canopy in their backyard waiting for the rare Violet-crowned Hummingbird to show. It did and I got my lifer Violet-crowned.
Wally and Marion passed away a few years ago and the Tucson Audubon Society stepped in to save this treasured and beloved location. Donations from birders and birding organizations helped buy the house and acreage. It is now loaded with gardens and paths and ponds…and of course, hummingbird feeders…and the Violet-crowns still come to feed.
This is the renovated hummingbird watching area at the Paton’s…now called the “Paton Center for Hummingbirds”
And the star of the show arrived! Several Violet-crowned Hummers fed at the Paton Center’s feeders and perched obligingly for us photographers.
Canyon Towhees in the underbrush.
Wildflower gardens and paths at the Paton Center for Hummingbirds in Patagonia, Arizona.
Common Checkered-Skipper at the wildflower gardens at the Paton Center for Hummingbirds in Patagonia, Arizona.
White Prickly Poppy (Argemone albiflora) is a large and beautiful wildflower in southeast Arizona.
“The oil of the white prickly poppy was used as a fine lubricant during WWII. It was found that the oil content of the seed is 25.8% which is similar to the oil content found in soybeans.”
—Quote from wikipedia.com
Vermilion Flycatcher along the dirt road to Sonoita Creek.
Any riparian area in the desert southwest USA is going to be an oasis for birds. The Nature Conservancy’s Patagonia-Sonoita Creek Sanctuary is no exception. Unfortunately I arrived just an hour before closing so was not able to explore much.
Sparky and huge Cottonwood along Sonoita Creek.
Phainopepla at Sonoita Creek Sanctuary.
Broad-billed Hummer at the Sonoita Creek Sanctuary.